Yellowing can describe a number of conditions. Fortunately, most of these conditions can be corrected by the same process. The yellow color is normally only on the tips of carpet tufts or the surface of an upholstery fabric. The intensity may range from a pale yellow to a dark brownish yellow. Most often the yellowing is light and is noticed on light colored fibers.
Wool is a natural fiber that comes from the fleece of sheep or
lambs. It is found in higher-end carpet in homes or commercial
properties, and can be in tufted or woven construction. Wool
is a very strong and durable fiber but has some limitations in
cleaning. You must control your moisture, pH and drying time
to avoid problems such as bleeding, browning, wicking and
shrinkage (woven carpets).
Wool is an amazing fiber and is one of the finest face yarns available for carpet. It has excellent soil-hiding and release characteristics. Wool holds dye to the core of its fiber, and you may see rugs in museums with brilliant colors, which are well over a hundred years old. This bond with dye also explains the difficulty of removing any stains with dye additives. Wool is also sensitive to alkaline chemicals over 9.5 pH after prolonged exposure. Wool organizations recommend that a pH of 4.5 to 8.5 be used when cleaning wool fibers.
Water extraction is one of the most important steps in a water damage restoration project. You must remove the water both quickly and as thoroughly in order to mitigate the loss. Proper extraction can remove as much as 97% of the water present in carpet and cushion. But, without proper extraction procedures the drying process will be slowed. In this Technical Guide we will discuss the principles of water extraction and some of the most efficient tools needed to perform the work.
The “top down” drying method for carpet and pad is an “in-place” method that is usually done in conjunction with structural drying of clean-water floods. This is a system that will allow you to completely and safely dry the structure, carpet and pad, often in three to four days without removing pad/carpet from the structure. This could save the property owner and the insurance company a lot of time, mess and inconvenience, and could increase your profit by more than 20% compared to pulling pad.
NOTE –This brochure is a guideline only and is not a comprehensive approach to “top down” or “in-place” drying. It is imperative you attend an applied structural drying class to learn more about this service.
Drying the structure is an extremely important aspect in handling a water loss. This involves much more than drying carpet and pad. You will need to locate and dry all affect materials. If the structure is not dried appropriately the damage can progress to include secondary damage and possibly amplification of mold and bacteria. Proper drying procedures can save the property owner and the insurance company thousands of dollars in replacement costs.
This brochure is a guideline only and is not a comprehensive approach to structural drying. It is imperative you attend a water restoration course or an applied structural drying class to learn more about this service.
Dehumidification is the process of removing moisture from the air. Once moisture has evaporated from the structure and contents, it must be removed from the air by exhausting to the outside or by use of dehumidifiers. Failure to properly dehumidify the air can result in substantial secondary damage and pose a health risk due to the likelihood of increased microbial growth.
Dehumidification may be accomplished by means of an open (AKA natural) system or using a closed (AKA mechanical) system. The open system uses outside air to replace humid air in the affected area. The closed system uses Low Grain Refrigerant (LGR) dehumidifiers or sometimes desiccant dehumidifiers. Combination systems are also used.
Category 3 (black water) floods contain pathogenic agents and are grossly unsanitary. These are typically from rising water such as river flooding or sewage back-flows but can come from other sources such as a Category 2 flood that has not been removed promptly. Toilet back-flows that originate from beyond the toilet trap are considered black water contamination regardless of visible content, color or odor. Technicians performing gray or black water restoration must be trained in microbiology, biocide use, psychrometry, and health and safety equipment use.
Category 2, or gray water floods, originate from sources that contain a significant level of contamination and have the potential to cause illness to humans. These sources may be from overflows from dishwashers, washing machines, toilets or seepage from aquariums or waterbeds. It is important to remove the water as quickly as possible. Gray water that remains untreated several days may escalate to a category 3 (black water) flood. Black water floods are discussed in another Technical Guide.